Was Jesus really born? – Virendra Parekh

Joseph & Mary

Virendra Parekh“Missionary propaganda would leave the impression that Jesus was a mighty figure who took the world by storm as soon as he appeared on the scene. However, the ‘solid historical figure’ melts into thin air at the first brush with modern historical research. Biblical and Christological research undertaken in the West during the last two and a half centuries has cast doubt on the historicity of every aspect of the life of Jesus, including his existence as a historical person.” – Virendra Parekh

Mary and the Babe Jesus according to the Koran“Let me tell you at the outset that Jesus is no mythological mumbo-jumbo like your Rama and Krishna, and even Buddha. On the contrary, he was a solid historical figure whose miracles were witnessed and vouchsafed by many contemporary people,” said a Jesuit missionary to Sita Ram Goel. Let us have a closer look at this “solid historical figure”.

Historicity of Jesus as described in Gospels has been one of the principal dogmas of all Christian denominations. Now, as Ram Swarup used to say, historicity by itself does not mean much. You and I are historical persons, but that fact by itself does not confer greatness or any other virtue on us. However, when historicity of the founder is touted as a point of superiority, we are inclined to examine it a little more closely.

The missionary propaganda would leave the impression that Jesus was a mighty figure who took the world by storm as soon as he appeared on the scene. However, the ‘solid historical figure’ melts into thin air at the first brush with modern historical research. Biblical and Christological research undertaken in the West during the last two and a half centuries has cast doubt on the historicity of every aspect of the life of Jesus, including his existence as a historical person.

Albert Schweitzer, the world famous theologian and missionary, admitted that, “There is nothing more negative than the result of the critical study of the life of Jesus. The Jesus of Nazareth who came forward publicly as the messiah, who preached the ethic of the Kingdom of the God, who founded the Kingdom of Heaven upon earth and died to give his work final consecration, never had any existence. This image has not been destroyed from without. It has fallen to pieces, cleft and disintegrated by concrete historical problems which came to surface one after the other and … refused to be palmed down to fit the design on which Jesus of the theology has been constructed….”[1]

Edward Gibbon

Silence of the Pagans

The history of ancient Rome has been recorded in great detail. There is a vast body of historical and philosophical literature written in or referring to the time-frame when Jesus is supposed to have walked the earth. But that literature is oblivious of the mighty figure called Jesus Christ. Seneca (2 BC-66 AD), Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD), Martial (40-102 AD), Plutarch (45-125 AD), Juvenal (55-140 AD), Apuleius (d. 170 AD), Pausanius (d. 185 AD) and Dio Casius (155-240 AD) do not mention any Jesus or Christ. Epictetus (50-100 AD) refers to Galileans starting with Judas the Galilean who led the Jewish revolt against Rome in the first decade of the 1st century, but not to Jesus of Nazareth who is supposed to have come from Galilee shortly afterwards. There is no reference to any Jesus in any Pagan work of the time.

“The name of Seneca, of the elder and the younger Pliny, of Tacitus, of Plutarch, of Galen, of the slave Epictetus, and the emperor Marcus Antonius, adorn the age in which they flourished, and exalt the dignity of human nature…. Yet all these sages (it is no less an object of surprise than of concern) overlooked or rejected the perfection of the Christian system….” says Edward Gibbon in his classic Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.[2] Read it between the lines to grasp what he wants to convey to a largely Christian readership without causing offence. He adds, equally meaningfully, “those among them who condescend to mention the Christians consider them only as obstinate and perverse enthusiasts who exacted an implicit submission to their mysterious doctrines without being able to produce a single argument that could engage the attention of men of sense and learning.”

There are a few words or stray passages referring to “Chrestus” or his worshippers in Pliny the Younger (60-114 AD), Tacitus (55-120 AD), Suetonius (70-120 AD) and Sulpicius Severus (d. 400 AD). The word “Chrestus” (“good” or “agreeable”) was used as an appellation for characters belonging to several sects. It did not mean anything like ‘Christ’ or ‘Khristos’. That alone can explain the attempt by a Christian scribe to scratch the “e” in Chrestus and replace it by an “i” in a manuscript of Tacitus.[3]

Critical scrutiny has shown that all these references either do not relate to Jesus of Nazareth, or are influenced by Christian tradition, or are clever Christian fabrications. Ian Wilson concludes that “in all this there is scarcely a crumb of information to compel a belief in Jesus’ existence”.[4] Paul Johnson comments that fabrications “occur throughout the history of Christianity up to the Renaissance and even beyond”.[5]

Sita Ram Goel has pointed out that the word “Christian” does not appear in the Christian literature itself before 140 AD. On the other hand, anti-Christian polemics which appears for the first time around 160 AD, starts by questioning the existence of a character called Jesus Christ.[6]

Flavius JosephusNon-evidence of Jewish historians

As per Christian tradition, Jesus was a Jew who lived in Palestine during the first 30 or 33 years of the era which is supposed to have begun from the year of his birth. One would expect him to get a pride of place in the writings of Jewish historians who lived and wrote during the same period or a little later. It is, therefore, strange that they are silent on Jesus or the religion he is said to have founded. Philo (20 BC-54 AD), who wrote a history of the Jews, knows no Jesus Christ and no Christians. Nor does another historian of the same period, Justus of Tiberius.

The most interesting case is that of Flavius Josephus who lived from AD 36 or 37 to 99 or 100. He has authored two monumental works—The Jewish War in 77 AD and the Antiquities of the Jews in 92 AD—which are regarded as a major source for the history of Palestine in the first century. Unfortunately but unsurprisingly, his works have been doctored by Christian scribes to impart a semblance of historicity to Jesus. Christian apologists point to two passages, one long and the other very short, which mention Jesus as a wise man and also as Christ. But scholars have proved quite convincingly that both of them are either clumsy Christian interpolations or have been tampered with by Christian scribes.

Here they are as they occur in the modern editions of Antiquities of Jews.

(1) Now there was about this time, Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was doer of miraculous works…. He was Christ; and when Pilate, at the suggestion of many of the principal men amongst us, (i.e. Jews) condemned him to cross (April 3, 33 AD), those that loved him at first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day (April 5, 33 AD)…. (VII, III.3)

The dates in the passage are those which are held by the modern Church, they are not supplied by Josephus. The whole passage is a later interpolation. According to Prof. C.K. Barrett, “The authenticity of Josephus’s reference to Jesus as it stands now is very questionable. The passage is found in all the manuscripts (but none is older than eleventh century) and was known to Eusebius (fourth century) but Origen (first half of the third century) does not seem to have read it, at least in its present form, since he plainly tells us that Josephus did not believe Jesus to be the Christ.”[7]

(2) … so he (Ananus, the High Priest) assembled the Sanhedrin (assembly) of the judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, … and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of law, he delivered them to be stoned…. (XX IX.1)

The authenticity and credibility of this passage is also dubious because its account of the character of James (as a law breaker) and his death (by stoning) is contradicted by other early accounts.

The vast rabbinical literature of the Jews, composed during the first two and a quarter centuries of the Christian era, contains only five authentic references to Jesus. But they “do not conclusively establish his historicity, as none of them is sufficiently early”. Moreover, “they are so vague in their chronology that they differ by as much as 200 years in the dates they assign to him”. None of the five Jesuses fits the Christian scheme of Jesus Christ’s birth or life or death. The Talmud betrays no knowledge of Jesus independent of the Christian tradition, and it is conceded by most Christian scholars that it “is useless as a source of information about Jesus”.[8]

Will & Ariel DurantThe ‘Evidence’ of Gospels

Biblical scholars have compiled them with great diligence. The findings and conclusions of their research are available to anyone with relatively small effort. Among others, for example, Arun Shourie has documented them in great detail in his Harvesting Our Souls: Missionaries, their design, their claims (ASA Publications, New Delhi, 2000). Small wonder that no responsible theologian or historian is now prepared to construct the life-story of Jesus from material provided by the Gospels.

“But that is the whole point. You are nit-picking, going on and on about the discrepancies among the accounts of an event in different Gospels. The details of Gospels are not what is important. What matters is the figure of faith that they weave,” the missionaries would say.

Although this is a somersault from tall claims about a solid figure of history as opposed to mythological mumbo-jumbo, we would let it pass. There is no doubt that millions of Christians through the ages have derived solace and guidance from the Gospels.

The Hindu response to this argument would be: If faith is what is important, what is the reason to prefer Jesus over, say, Ram or Krishna? As figures of faith they too have sustained millions upon millions of people for far longer than Jesus. Moreover, they have done so without the help of the highly aggressive, well-oiled and well-heeled machinery of the Church. What is the need for conversion if one figure of faith is to be replaced with another?


  1. History of Hindu-Christian Encounters: AD 304 to 1996, by Sita Ram Goel, Voice of India, New Delhi, 1996.
  2. Missionaries in India, Arun Shourie, ASA Publications, New Delhi, 1994.
  3. Hindu View of Christianity and Islam, Ram Swarup, Voice of India, New Delhi, 1992.
  4. Jesus Christ: Artifice for Aggression, Sita Ram Goel, Voice of India, New Delhi, 1994.
  5. Profiles in Deception: Ayodhya and Dead Sea Scrolls, N. S. Rajaram, Voice of India, New Delhi, 2000.


  1. The Quest for the Historical Jesus, Albert Schweitzer, English translation, London 1910, reprint 1945, p. 397.
  2. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibbon, Modern Library edition, p. 442.
  3. An Analysis of Christian Origins, Georges Ory, London, 1961, pp. 33 and fn 38.
  4. Jesus: The Evidence, Ian Wilson, Pan Books 1985, p. 51.
  5. A History of Christianity, Paul Johnson, Penguin Books, London, 1978, pp. 26-27.
  6. Jesus Christ: An Artifice for Aggression, Sita Ram Goel, Voice of India, New Delhi, 1994, First Reprint 2001, p. 5.
  7. The New Testament Background, ed. C. K. Barret, p. 277.
  8. Did Jesus Exist?G.A. Wells,  1986, p.12 with reference to J. Klausner, Jesus of Nazareth, London, 1925, and M. Goldstein, Jesus in the Jewish Tradition, New York, 1950, as quoted by Sita Ram Goel in Jesus: An Artifice for Aggression, Voice of India, New Delhi, 1994, p. 4.
  9. An Analysis of Christian Origins, Georges Ory, London, 1961, p. 39.
  10. Jesus: The Evidence, Ian Wilson, Pan Books, 1985, p. 30.
  11. The Story of Civilisation, Part III, Caesar and Christ, Will Durant, Fourth Printing, New York, pp. 556-57.

› Virendra Parekh is a senior journalist of 45 years’ standing. He writes in English and Gujarati on economics and politics as also on issues related to Indian civilisation, history and cultural nationalism. Currently, he is Executive Editor of Vyapar, a 72-year-old Mumbai-based Gujarati bi-weekly economy, business and investment.

Ancient Historians

9 Responses

  1. Christians now a minority in England and Wales for first time. Proportion of the population describing themselves as Christian has fallen to 46.2 per cent, ONS figures for 2021 show – Gabriella Swerling & Ben Butcher – Telegraph – London – 29 November 2022

    Christians now account for less than half of England and Wales’ population for the first time in census history, government figures reveal.

    The Office for National Statistics (ONS) results show that 46.2 per cent of the population (27.5 million people) described themselves as ‘Christian’ in 2021. This marks a 13.1 percentage point decrease from 59.3 per cent (33.3 million people) in 2011.

    The census data also shows that every major religion increased over the ten-year period, except for Christianity.

    Despite this decrease, ‘Christian’ remained the most common response to the question about religion. ‘No religion’ was the second most common response, increasing to 37.2 per cent (22.2 million) from 25.2 per cent (14.1 million) across the ten-year period.

    The Archbishop of York, the Most Rev Stephen Cottrell, said it was “not a great surprise” that there is a declining number of Christians in the UK, but it was important to remember that Christianity is “the largest movement on Earth”.

    However, Humanists UK said the Census “should be a wake-up call which prompts fresh reconsiderations of the role of religion in society”.

    Other results from the census show that in 2021, 81.7 per cent (48.7 million) of usual residents in England and Wales identified their ethnic group within the ‘White’ category – a decrease from 86.0 per cent (48.2 million) in the 2011 Census.

    The next most common ethnic group was ‘Asian, Asian British or Asian Welsh’, accounting for 9.3 per cent (5.5 million) of the overall population. This ethnic group saw the largest increase from 2011, up from 7.5 per cent (4.2 million people).

    Researchers also found that the most common main languages other than English (English or Welsh in Wales) were: Polish (1.1 per cent, 612,000), Romanian (0.8 per cent, 472,000), Panjabi (0.5 per cent, 291,000), and Urdu (0.5 per cent, 270,000).

    Responding to the religion data, the Archbishop said: “It’s not a great surprise that the census shows fewer people in this country identifying as Christian than in the past, but it still throws down a challenge to us not only to trust that God will build his kingdom on Earth, but also to play our part in making Christ known.

    “We have left behind the era when many people almost automatically identified as Christian, but other surveys consistently show how the same people still seek spiritual truth and wisdom and a set of values to live by.”

    The Archbishop added that Christianity continues to play a major role in secular society, especially during the current cost of living crisis.

    “This winter – perhaps more so than for a long time – people right across the country, some in desperate need, will be turning to their local church, not only for spiritual hope but practical help,” he said.

    “We will be there for them, in many cases, providing food and warmth. And at Christmas millions of people will still come to our services.”

    ‘UK is one of the least religious countries on Earth’

    However, Andrew Copson, the chief executive of Humanists UK, said the “biggest demographic change in England and Wales of the last ten years has been the dramatic growth of the non-religious. They mean the UK is almost certainly one of the least religious countries on Earth”.

    He added: “No state in Europe has such a religious set-up as we do in terms of law and public policy, while at the same time having such a non-religious population.

    “Iran is the only other state in the world that has clerics voting in its legislature. And no other country in the world requires compulsory Christian worship in schools as standard.

    “The law has failed to keep up with the pace of change, and as a result, the enormous non-religious population in England and Wales face everyday discrimination – from getting local school places to receiving appropriate emotional support in hospitals.


  2. Americans Who Belong to a House of Worship Are Now a Minority – Ed Kilgore – New York Intelligencer – NYC – Mar. 29, 2021

    It’s Holy Week for Christians and Passover for Jews; there are also two Hindu holidays this week. But as Gallup reports, the percentage of Americans who belong to houses of worship where such days in the religious calendar are observed has been rapidly falling in this century. For the first time since Gallup began compiling religious membership statistics in 1937 (when 73 percent of Americans belonged to a church, synagogue, mosque, or temple), a minority — only 47 percent — now say they belong to some sort of congregation.

    Though there has been a decline in religious memberships among older generations in the past 20 years, the big new factor is the sharply lower level among millennials (36 percent report memberships). These numbers should not, however, be conflated with the percentage of Americans expressing (or declining to express) a religious preference, since a sizable minority of Americans profess to follow some particular religious tradition without affiliating with a house of worship. But the ranks of the irreligious continue to climb, their numbers nearly doubling among Baby Boomers (7 percent to 13 percent) and Gen-Xers (11 percent to 20 percent) since 1998 and so far comprising 31 percent of millennials and 33 percent of Gen-Zers.

    Gallup has just enough data on Christians (though not other religious traditions) to give a pretty detailed breakdown of where and how rapidly the declines in church membership are occurring, with Easterners, Catholics, self-identified Democrats, the unmarried, and the non-college-educated showing the largest relative drops.

    Do these trends indicate the eventual collapse of religious observance and, ultimately, of religious belief? Are secular folks who think of faith as just a slowly dying species of pre-modern superstition right? That’s not so clear. This definitely isn’t the most “churchless” period of American history; one leading estimate showed that a majority of people in this country did not belong to a religious organization from the beginning of the Republic until the turn of the 20th century. What we tend to think of as “traditional” levels of religious activity are really just those characteristic of the period from the end of World War II until 1960 — i.e., the period when many baby-boomers were growing up. For those who belong to what I call the Church of the Day Before Yesterday, who tend to divinize the culture of their childhood or their parents, America has had a terrible falling off of religious belief and practice. From the broader perspective of national — not to mention world — history, we’re in another of the many phases of the complex ways people understand the universe and one another.


  3. In my opinion, it really matters little whether or not Jesus actually existed. The kind, rational pacifist teachings that are attributed to him are not what is most widely followed by Christians. However, all the laws, rules and regulations laid out to guide Christian behaviour, for certain, did not come from Jesus. Religions on a whole are there to tell people what to do and what not to do. That way they don’t have to think for themselves. They believe that the priests, pastors, imams, rabbis, monks, gurus, etc. have a direct pipeline to God, so they entrust all of their spirituality to them (its their job so to speak). Just as many people when ill, go to a physician and follow blindly what is prescribed, instead of going inside and asking your own body what is best. I am convinced that God talks to everyone – all the time. The question is not “to whom does God speak”, but “who listens?”


  4. Sri Rama was born at 12-25 PM on Sukla Paksha Navami of Chaitra month,10th January, 5114BC (Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras)


  5. these abrahmic faiths are very politically motivated,thats how they won these large geogrophic areas of today,but i guess in the developed countries the religion is becoming less and less important.


  6. A little elaboration is in order. Herod referred to in Mathew is Herod the Great who died in 3 or 4 BC. When Luke says “It was the fifteenth year of the rule of Emperor Tiberius; Pontius Pilate was the Governor of Judea, Herod was the ruler of Galilee and his brother Philip was…” (3.1-3) he refers to Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great, who succeeded his father as ruler of Galilee. Luke refers here not to the birth of Jesus but his baptism at the age of 30. John’s Gospel informs us that Jesus was not fifty years old when he died. That would put his birth around 16 or 15 BC. When was Jesus born if at all?


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